The types of Insulin are available for managing diabetes are:
The Rapid Acting Insulin is used as bolus (given before each meal). Its’ action starts in 5-15 minutes, peaks in 30-60 minutes, and is over in 2-4 hours.
Short acting insulin (also known as ‘regular’ or ‘plain’ insulin) starts acting in 30 minutes, peaks at 2-3 hours, and lasts for 5-6 hours.
Intermediate acting insulin is a cloudy looking liquid, since insulin is in suspension: it starts in 2-4 hours, peaks at 4-8 hours, and lasts for 10 to 18 hours.
Long acting insulin has a relatively peak-less action profile, lasting for about 12-24 hours. This is use to provide the basal needs of the body.
The amount and frequency of dosage is determined by the frequency of meals and the BG level. The child and family must learn how to monitor BG, how to load and inject insulin, and how to decide the dose of insulin. The doctor guides the family how to regulate the insulin doses based on the BG reading, the type and quantity of the meal to be taken, and the activity levels. Insulin can be taken by a syringe, a smaller convenient pen device, or by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) through a portable pump.